Faced with the challenge of seeking just treatment in a society that systematically restricted the lives of freepeople as well as slaves, African Americans began publishing their own periodicals long before the Civil War , using their words as weapons in a protracted struggle for equality. The crusading editors of early black newspapers comprised an intellectual vanguard with a five-pronged mission: 1 to define the identity of a people who had been stripped of their own culture in a hostile environment; 2 to create a sense of unity by establishing a network of communication among literate blacks and their white supporters throughout the country; 3 to examine issues from a black perspective; 4 to chronicle black achievements that were ignored by the American mainstream; and 5 to further the cause of black liberation. These objectives, set forth by the founders of one of the oldest black institutions in the United States , underscored the activities of African-American journalists for nearly years. When blacks began to move into the mainstream during the latter part of the twentieth century, assuming positions on general-circulation newspapers and in the broadcast media, many retained a sense of being linked to a larger racial cause. Often they were torn by conflicting loyalties. Were they blacks first or journalists first?
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